Background: Significance analysis plays a major role in identifying and ranking genes, transcription factor binding sites, DNA methylation regions, and other high-throughput features associated with illness. We propose a new approach, called gene set bagging, for measuring the probability that a gene set replicates in future studies. Gene set bagging involves resampling the original high-throughput data, performing gene-set analysis on the resampled data, and confirming that biological categories replicate in the bagged samples. Results: Using both simulated and publicly-available genomics data, we demonstrate that significant categories in a gene set enrichment analysis may be unstable when subjected to resampling. We show our method estimates the replication probability (R), the probability that a gene set will replicate as a significant result in future studies, and show in simulations that this method reflects replication better than each set’s p-value. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gene lists based on p-values are not necessarily stable, and therefore additional steps like gene set bagging may improve biological inference on gene sets.